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China is moving rapidly to seal off its capital city of 22 million residents by canceling flights and trains amid growing fears that a second wave of covid-19 is gathering strength in Beijing and could spread to the rest of the country.

Authorities on Wednesday canceled 1,200 flights in and out of Beijing's two airports and sharply reduced long-distance bus services. Residents were banned from making nonessential trips outside the city and were required to take nucleic tests before they left, municipal officials said at a briefing where they announced 31 new cases.

While Beijing's case numbers are low by global standards, they are vexing Chinese authorities who had touted their success in quickly stamping out the coronavirus and had taken pains to ensure it would not infect the seat of the ruling Communist Party. Government officials announced "wartime" measures on Saturday after cases were discovered at the Xinfadi wholesale market in southwest Beijing, which carried echoes of the original outbreak in Wuhan in December.

In the days since, Beijing has steadily reintroduced stricter measures, potentially foreshadowing the difficulty that many governments could face in warding off future waves of covid-19.

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After classes resumed just a month ago, Beijing's schools were again shut on Wednesday, as were some gyms, swimming pools and public attractions. The city raised its emergency response to the second-highest level, and entry and exit checkpoints and temperature checks returned to neighborhoods in the city center. The scenes were reminiscent of those during the outbreak's peak in February and March, albeit with lockdown measures not as strict.

The risk of people in Beijing traveling in and out of the city and spreading infections countrywide is "severe," said Chen Bei, Beijing's deputy party chief. "We need to take decisive action ... resolutely control this gathering epidemic, and resolutely curb its spread inside and outside the city," Chen said.

Officials said Beijing has tested 3.56 million people since Saturday, underscoring the extent of concern.

Adding to a sense of frustration with the virus's reemergence, Chinese experts said it may have been lurking undetected for weeks.

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"The Beijing outbreak very likely didn't start in June, or May, but a month before that," Gao Fu, head of the Chinese Center for Disease Control, told reporters in Shanghai. "There can only be so many cases around us now if there were already many people with no symptoms or light symptoms back then. This is our current speculation, but we need to verify it."

Chinese researchers say they are still examining how the coronavirus made a sudden comeback.

Fears that shipped livestock and produce could carry the virus -- with potentially worrisome implications for international trade -- began circulating this week after it was found on cutting boards at the Xinfadi market used for salmon, which is imported from Europe. The genetic material of virus found at the market and in patients in Beijing also matched sequences typically found in patients in Europe.

Gallery: Partial lockdown for Beijing after new covid-19 cases in Chinese capital

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Although the theory was fanned this week by nationalist media outlets including the party-run Global Times -- which seized the opportunity to question whether the entire pandemic originated last year from Europe instead of China -- Chinese and international experts, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, say there is relatively scant evidence that the virus is transmitted on food and packaging.

Wu Zunyou, the Chinese CDC's top epidemiologist, said Tuesday that the virus was also found throughout the hall of the Xinfadi market, suggesting that the salmon was not necessarily the source.

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